虚拟语气和倒装句的相关知识点及英文例句

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所属分类:英语教程

一.虚拟语气

虚拟语气表示说话人的主观愿望、猜疑、建议或与事实不符的假设等,而不表示客观存在的事实。虚拟语气是由句中的谓语动词的特殊形式表示出来的。

虚拟语气主要分为与现在事实相反,与过去事实相反以及与将来事实相反三个种类。让我们一一来看下它们的结构和用法吧!

1、表示与现在事实相反的情况

从句:If+主语+动词一般过去时(Be动词用were)

主句:主语+ should/would/might/could+do:If I were you,I would take an umbrella.如果我是你,我会带把伞。(事实:我不可能是你)If I knew his telephone number,I would tell you.如果我知道他的电话号码,我就会告诉你。(事实:不知道)If there were no air or water,there would be no living things on the earth.如果没有水和空气,地球上就不会有生物。(事实:地球上既有空气也有水)If I had any money with me,I could lend you some.如果我带钱了,我就会借给你些。(事实:没有带钱)If he studied harder,he might pass the exam.如果他再努力些,就能通过考试了。(事实:没有努力)If I were you, I'd wear a shirt and tie.如果我是你,我就会穿衬衫和领带。(事实:我并不是你)

2、表示与过去事实相反的情况

从句:If+主语+had+done

主句:主语+should/would/might/could+have doneeg:If I had got there earlier,I should/would have met her.如果我早到那儿,我就会见到她。(事实:去晚了)If he had taken my advice,he would not have made such a mistake.如果他听我的劝告的话,就不会犯这样的错误了。
(事实:没有听我的话)

3、表示与将来事实相反

从句:①if+主语+were to do

②if+主语+should+do

③if+主语+动词一般过去式(be动词用were)

主句:主语+should/would/might/could+doeg:If he should come here tomorrow,I would talk to him.如果他明天来这儿的话,我就跟他谈谈。(事实:来的可能性很小,不可能)If there were a heavy snow next Sunday,we would go skating.如果下周日下大雪,我们就去滑冰。(事实:下雪可能性很小,不可能)If she were to be here next Monday,I would tell her about the matter.如果她下周一来这儿的话,我就会告诉她这件事的始末。(事实:来的可能性很小,不可能)

除了以上三种主要情况,虚拟语气还有以下几种结构和用法哦。

1、 当从句的谓语动词含有were,should,had时,if可以省略,这时从句要用倒装语序,即把were,should,had等词置于句首,这种多用于书面语。eg:Should he agree to go there,we would send him there.要是他答应去的话,我们就派他去了。Were she here,she would agree with us.如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。Had he learnt about computers,we would have hired him to work here.如果他懂一些电脑知识的话,我们已经聘用他来这里工作了。

2、非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表达出来,只暗含在副词、介词短语、上下文或其他方式表示出来,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句,在多数情况下,条件会暗含在短语中,如without…,but for…(要不是因为...)等

eg:
But for his help,we would be working now.要不是他的帮助,我们还会在工作呢。Without your instruction,I would not have made such great progress.要是没有你的指导,我不会取得如此大的进步。We didn't know his telephone number,otherwise we would have telephoned him.我们不知道他的电话号码,否则我们就会给他打电话。

3、 有时,虚拟条件语气的从句中,主、从句可以省略其中的一个,来表示说话人的一种强烈的感情。

①省略从句
He would have finished it.他本该完成了。You could have passed this exam.你本能通过这次考试的。

②省略主句
If I were at home now.要是我现在在家里该多好啊。If only I had got it.我要是得到它了该多好啊。

4.注意,在虚拟语气的从句中,动词be的过去时态一律用were,不用was。If I were you,I would go to look for him.如果我是你,就会去找他。

二.倒装句

在英语中,主语和谓语是句子的核心,它们之间有两种语序:一是主语在谓语之前称为自然语序(Natural Order);二是主语在谓语之后则称为倒装语序(Inverted Order)。而倒装语序中又有完全倒装(Full Inversion)和部分倒装(Partial Inversion)

1.完全倒装(Full Inversion):又称"全部倒装",是指将句子中的谓语全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用于一般现在时和一般过去时。

①谓语+主语+……
There be(的各种形式)+主语(+地点或时间状语)
例子:
There was a drop in the temperature.温度下降了。There are birds singing in the tree.鸟儿在树上唱歌。

②副词+谓语动词+名词主语+……
例子:
Out rushed a young lady.一个年轻的女士冲了出来。

③过去分词或现在分词+be动词的各种形式+主语+……
例子:
Scattered on the floor were several books and magazines.几本书和杂志散落在地板上。

2.部分倒装(Partial Inversion)(又称半倒装句):指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态动词倒装至主语之前,而谓语动词无变化。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do,does或did,并将其置于主语之前。
例如:
Nor did he let the disease stop him from living the kind of life he has always dreamt about.疾病没有使他放弃过上梦想中的生活。

部分倒装也有以下几种常见类型:

1.    以否定词开头的句子要求部分倒装。注意下列句子中助动词或情态动词提前、甚至补充助动词的用法:
例:Not until yesterday did little John change his mind.小约翰直到昨天才改变了主意。

2.以否定副词开头并加状语放在句首的句子要求部分倒装。这些否定副词有barely, hardly, little, seldom, scarcely…… when, never, no sooner…… than, rarely, no more, not nearly, not only等以及only。
例:Only in the country can you learn the “true English”.只有处在本国,你才能学到“真正的英语。”

3.介词+no+名词的结构中需要用部分倒装,这些结构包括at no time; by no means; by no manner of means; for no reason; in no case; in/under no circumstances; in no sense; in no way; on no account; on no consideration; at no point
例:Under no circumstances should you lend Paul any money.无论如何,你都应该把钱借给保罗。

4. 由as引导的部分倒装句:
a) 当as作为比较意义时,即用于as + adj./ adv. + as结构中时,如果把第一个as省略掉,就形成部分倒装句。
例:Cautious as the rest of her family (was) , she didn't seem willing to give an immediate reply to my question.正如她家里人一样谨慎小心,她似乎不愿意立即回答我的问题。She charged the stairs, quick as a rabbit (ran).她跑上楼去,跑得象兔子那么快!

b) 当 as引导让步状语时,和although, though一样,当用作“尽管”之义时,可以用于部分倒装句。
Hard as he worked, he did not pass the exam.虽然他很用功,但他还是没及格。

c) 表示原因时,为了强调起见,也可以倒装。
例:Tired as he was, we decided not to disturb him.因为他太累了,我们决定不打扰他。

d) 等于so时,意义是“也,也是”
例:She worked hard, so/ as did her husband.她工作很努力,她的丈夫工作也很努力。

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