新概念英语4学习笔记:第20课 Snake Poison

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所属分类:英语教程

本文选自吴应时的《应时新概念英语4》,是学习新概念英语第四册的辅助学习笔记,提供知识点精讲及解析,想知道具体都有哪些内容,那就一起来看看吧。

第一段语法符号详解:

1. How is a mystery…

复合句,该句中含有两个主语从句. 第一个是 how…poison,该主语从句构成整句主系表结构的主语. 而在这个主语从句中,又有一个 that…poison 作第一个主语从句的主语,该主语从句为主谓宾结构,即 snakes manufactured poison.

2. their saliva was converted into a poison that…

复合句,主句为主谓宾结构,后面跟 that 引导的定语从句修饰 a poison,定语从句亦为主谓宾结构.

a mild, digestive juice like our own,整个是同位语成分,这里对此进行了细分.

3. It was not forced upon them; they could have caught and lived on as…

并列复合句,两句以分号隔开,第一句为主谓宾结构,第二句为双谓语,另有一个 as 引导的方式状语从句,该从句为主谓结构.

4. Poison to a snake is a luxury; it enables it…

并列句,两句以分号隔开,第一句为主系表结构,第二句为主谓宾+宾补结构,with…effort 为方式状语,后面 no more…bite 可以看作是 little effort 的同位语,具体描述一下有多轻松.

5. why snakes…

简单句,该句有所省略,还原可为:Why do only snakes have poison.

6. Cats would be helped…

并列句,该句以分号分成两部分,前一句为主谓结构,如果 helped 改为 helpful 则为主系表结构.

后句两个 with 所带为状语,因主语仍为 cats;而破折号后面完整句子为 a bite is needed and no more effort is needed. 主语已与 cats 不同,属于独立主格结构,可以理解成状语. (12.1.2)

7. it would be an assistance though…when…

复合句,该句主句为主系表结构,后面接一个 though 引导的让步状语从句,该从句亦为主系表结构,只不过在该从句中,还有一个 when 引导的时间状语从句,主谓结构.

8. Nature selected only snakes.

简单句,主谓宾结构.

9. One wonders why Nature concocted poison.

复合句,主谓+宾语从句结构. why 引导的宾语从句为主谓宾结构. 此句表面是大自然调制的毒液,但 with 这个状语表明,大自然是借蛇之口,调制出的毒液.

第二段语法符号详解:

1. one might suppose that…process took place.

复合句,主谓+宾语从句结构. 从句本身为主谓结构.

2. It did not; some snakes manufactured a poison as different as…

并列复合句,以分号分开,首句为主谓结构. 第二句主句为主谓宾结构,后面为从句本身为主谓结构.

有三个结构修饰 a poison,其中第一个可改语序为(different from that of others) [in every respect]. 第二个修饰结构为 as different as 引导的方式状语从句,从句本身是主系表结构. 第三个为现在分词短语作后置定语,表示效果完全不同.

3. One poison acts on the nerves.

并列句,不过因为后句是省略句,划分了成分. 如果是两个完整的句子,则不能像本句一样直接以逗号相连,须加 and 才可以. 还原为 one poison acts on the nerves, and the other acts on the blood.

第三段语法符号详解:

1. The makers include…and their venom is called…

并列句,and 连接两个句子,第一句为主谓宾结构,第二句为主谓+主语补语. We call their venom . 宾语补足语在被动语态时,转为主语补足语.

2. Vipers and rattlesnakes manufacture the blood poison which…

复合句,主句为主谓宾结构,后有一个 which 引导的定语从句,该从句为被动语态的主谓+主语补语结构.

3. Both poisons are unpleasant, but the more unpleasant is the blood poison…

并列句,but 连接两个句子,均为主系表结构.

4. It is said that…

复合句,实际主语为两个 that 引导的主语从句. 两个主语从句均为主系表结构.

so to speak 为 so to say 的变体.

5. the nerve poison does its business…

复合句,句首是一个倒装的让步状语从句,还原为 as(此时应用 though) it may be that. 在 as 引导让步状语从句中,表语放在句首时,若主语是代词,主谓不倒装,但是必须把作表语的形容词、名词、动词和副词提到 as 前面. 所以文中仍为 it may,只是将 be that 提前.

主句为主谓宾结构.

6. This means nothing…

简单句,主谓宾结构.

7. Snakes did not acquire their poison, and the effects is immediate…

并列句,前句为主谓宾结构,后句为主系表结构.

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